Provide opportunities for social connection
  • Collaboration
  • Competition
  • Comparison/contrast
  • Reputation
  • Conformity
Display progress
  • Where you have been, where you are, and where you need to go
  • Emphasize the gap between where you are and completion
  • levels, points, prizes, badges,
Display outcomes of past performance
  • Feedback
  • Celebrate effective actions
    • Time on task
    • Quality work
    • Meeting deadlines
    • Success
Display meaningful choices students can make in sequence, goals, pace, and strategyGive opportunities to personalize the UI
  • Avatar
  • Alias


Provide meaningful content and experiences
  • Make sure future utility is clear
  • Align/establish relevance with students goals and values
  • Provide a meaningful context/narrative, we are all story tellers
  • Make an emotional connection
Provide opportunities for social connection
  • Group problem solving
  • Collaboration
  • Competition
  • Companionship
  • Conformity
  • Comparison
  • Reputation

Ensure a balance between appropriate difficulty and challenge and being too easy
  • Reward problem solving with harder problems
Ensure students can recover from failure
  • Include rapid feedback cycles and low stakes
Success is clearly defined, goal orientationProductive experiences guided towards masteryProvide a fair evaluation of student performanceHighlight and celebrate success
  • Rewards as informational feedback, not behavioral control
Show progress: where you have been, are, and are going
Give students meaningful choices in the sequence, goals, pace, and strategy they use to complete the class